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Citation Styles and Tools


AMA Manual of Style ImageAMA (American Medical Association) is most often used by medical professionals and researchers. AMA uses footnotes with corresponding numbers as the in-text citation.

Bibliography example of a citation from a journal article:

Markowitz JT, & Laffel LM. Transitions in care: support group for young adults with type1 diabetes. Diabet Med. 2012; 29(4): 522-525. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03537.x.


AP Stylebook ImageAP (Associated Press) citation style is used by reporters, editors and others as a guide for grammar, punctuation and principles and practices of reporting. It is updated annually by the Associated Press.

Because it is used primarily in journalistic reporting, it does not have a system of in-text citations or bibliography/works cited formatting.


ASA Style Guide ImageASA (American Sociological Association) is used primarily by those publishing in ASA journals. ASA uses an author-date system of in-text citations (for example, Jones 1998).

References example of citation from a journal article:

Alba, Richard, John R. Logan, and Brian J. Stults. 2000. “The Changing Neighborhood Contexts of the Immigrant Metropolis.” Social Forces 79(2):587-621.


Journal of Forensic Sciences ImageJournal of Forensic Sciences Citation Style is used by those in forensic science. It is very similar to CSE citation-sequence style, with some variations.

References example of citation from a journal article:

Swanson BJ, Kyle CJ. Relative influence of temporal and geographic separation of source populations in a successful marten reintroduction. J Mammal 2007 Oct;88(5):1346-8.


IEEE LogoThe IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) style is used primarily in engineering and is based on the Chicago style (note/bibliography). The style uses footnotes and corresponding numbers for in-text citations.


Footnote example of citation from a journal article:

[6] W. Rafferty, “Ground antennas in NASA’s deep space telecommunications,” Proc. IEEE vol. 82, pp. 636-640, May 1994.


Turabian Style Guide ImageTurabian style is essentially Chicago style, with slight modifications for student writers. As with Chicago there are two citation styles:

1) notes-bibliography style (bibliography style) - which uses footnotes/endnotes and a bibliography.

2) author-date style - which uses in-text citations and a references list.

Bibliography style is used in literature, history, and the arts. Author-date style is used in the physical, natural, and social sciences.