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BUS X103 & X203

Why do we cite?

There are many reasons why it is so important to cite the sources you use in your research.

  • You demonstrate to your reader you've done proper research by listing sources you used to get your information.
  • You avoid plagiarism by quoting the words and ideas of other scholars.
  • You are being a responsible scholar by giving credit to other researchers and acknowledging their ideas.
  • You allow your reader to find the sources you used by citing them accurately in your paper by using in-text citations or footnotes in combination with a bibliography or works cited list.

What needs to be cited?

  • Direct quotes.
  • Paraphrased ideas that you found in a source (book, articles, blogs, etc.)
  • Not commonly known facts.
  • Data that you are using that came from doing research on your project.

Every time you refer to a resource in the text you must provide an in-text citation or a footnote/endnote depending on your citation style.

If you use an article more than once there should be multiple citations in the text.

Different Citation Styles

There are many different "styles" you may choose from when citing sources. Your professor will probably tell you which "style" is preferred for your class. MLA (Modern Language Association), Chicago, and APA (American Psychological Association) are three of the most commonly used citation styles, but there are hundreds.

Citing Sources

In this class, you will use Chicago Manual of Style, according to guidelines adopted by Kelley School of Business at IUPUI.

Kelley School of Business Guidelines for Chicago Manual of Style

  • Use endnotes not footnotes. Endnotes list all citations at the end of the document.
  • Within the text indicate citations using a superscript number.


The population of Indianapolis, IN in 2010 was 820,445 people.1

  • Citations within the text should be numbered chronologically as they appear. Do not skip around or reuse a citation endnote number. If you use the same source twice, then that source will have two endnotes.
  • At the end of your document label your bibliography or reference page "Endnotes". Insert a space before starting your list of citations. You citations will be listed as they appeared within the text so they will not be alphabetical by author.



1. U.S. Census Bureau, "2010 Demographic Profile: Indianapolis city (balance), Indiana," 2010, accessed December 2, 2016, American Fact Finder.

  • It is not necessary to include a separate bibliography listing articles alphabetically by author.
  • Each time you refer to an outside source you must add an endnote. However, when you list your citations at the end of the document you can refer to a prior note for a source you have used before.



1. Louis Columbus, “Where Big Data Jobs Will Be In 2016,” Forbes, November 16, 2015, accessed February 22, 2016,

2. Regina Henry and Santosh Venkatraman, “Big Data Analytics the Next Big Learning Opportunity,” Journal of Management Information and Decision Sciences 18, no. 2 (2015): 17–29.

3. Sam Ransbotham, David Kiron, and Pamela Kirk Prentice, “Minding the Analytics Gap,” MIT Sloan Management Review 56, no. 3 (Spring 2015):


10.   See note 1 above.

11.   See note 3 above, 65.                (This is referring to the source in note 3, but referring to page 65 of that source.)

  • If you are using the same source in two consecutive endnotes, you can use the abbreviation ibid.



1. Betsy Burton and David A. Willis, “Gartner’s Hype Cycles for 2015: Five Megatrends Shift the Computing Landscape,”, August 12, 2015,

2. Ibid.

3. Ibid, 125                                                  

In note 3, 125 indicates the relevant page number. So it is referring to page 125. List the page number if available.


Quick Reference for Endnote Citations using Chicago


Page number refers to page referenced. Always provide.
  1. Firstname Lastname, Title of Book (Place of  publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page number.


Indicate the edition you are reading (e.g. Kindle Edition, PDF e-book, etc.). If page numbers are not available you may use another indicator such as chapter, section, etc. Be as specific as you can and still be recognizable.
  1. Rebecca Lemon, Emma Mason, Johnathan Roberts, and Christopher Rowland, ed. The Blackwell Companion to the Bible in English Literature, (West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009), 20, PDF e-book.


  1. Rebecca Lemon, Emma Mason, Johnathan Roberts, and Christopher Rowland, ed. The Blackwell Companion to the Bible in English Literature, (West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009), Chapter 2, Kindle Edition.
Journal Article
  1. Mark Frydenberg, “Introducing Big Data Concepts in an Introductory Technology Course,” Information Systems Education Journal 13, no. 5 (September 1, 2015): 12.
Journal Article from Database
  1. Regina Henry and Santosh Venkatraman, “Big Data Analytics the Next Big Learning Opportunity,” Journal of Management Information and Decision Sciences 18, no. 2 (2015): 17–29, accessed February 22, 2016, ABI/INFORM Complete, ProQuest.

Newspaper or Popular Magazine Article

(Example shows database)
  1. Tom Coburn, "A Cancer ‘Moonshot’ Needs Big Data." Wall Street Journal - Eastern Edition, January 15, 2016, accessed January 29, 2016, A13, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost.
Web Resources
  1. Firstname Lastname, “Title of Web Page,” Publishing Organization or Name of Website in Italics, publication date and/or access date if available, URL.
  2. Keith Carter, “Big Data: What’s the Big Deal?”  National University of Singapore Business School: Think Business, June 03, 2013, accessed October 12, 2015.

Business Databases

Use your judgement. You may have to create your title (example 2) so that your user knows what you were searching. Always look to see if there is an author (analyst).

Provide the database name not the URL.
  1. Andrew Alverez, “Online Grocery Sales in the US. IBISWorld Industry Report OD5085,”July 2016, IBISWorld.
  2. “List of Greek Restaurants in Wake County, NC,” 2015, US Businesses, ReferenceUSA.
  3. Bryant Harland, “Attitudes Toward Gaming – US- June 2016”, June 2016, Mintel Academic.

Bloomberg Database

Follow the same guidelines as business databases. Often titles will be the screen name combined with the equity you are researching.

  1. "Financial Analysis for Microsoft US Equity," 2017, accessed May 22, 2017, Bloomberg Terminal.
Simmons Oneview Database

 Quick Report :

  1. “Demographic Profile: Business Purchasers making decisions over $5000 a year,” 2014, Spring 2014 NHCS Adult Study 12-Month, Simmons Oneview.

Crosstab Report:

  1. “Crosstab Report: Time of Day Energy Drink Users Watch Television,” 2014, Spring 2014 NHCS Adult Stud 12-Month, Simmons Oneview.


Additional Resources for Chicago Manual of Style

Always use full note citation format!

For quick reference you can refer to: If using the quick guide, be sure to use the “notes and bibliography” page. When looking at examples use the full citation format not the short citation format.